Week 10: Special Examinations—Breast, Genital, Prostate, and Rectal
One critical element of any physical exam is the ability of the examiner to put the patient at ease. By putting the patient at ease, nurses are more likely to glean quality, meaningful information that will help the patient get the best care possible. When someone feels safe, listened to, and cared about, exams often go more smoothly. This is especially true when dealing with issues concerning breasts, genitals, prostates, and rectums, which are subjects that many patients find difficult to talk about. As a result, it is important to gain a firm understanding of how to gain vital information and perform the necessary assessment techniques in as non-invasive a manner as possible.
For this week, you explore how to assess problems with the breasts, genitalia, rectum, and prostate.
Ball, J. W., Dains, J. E., Flynn, J. A., Solomon, B. S., & Stewart, R. W. (2019). Seidel’s guide to physical examination: An interprofessional approach (9th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby.
This chapter focuses on examining the breasts and axillae. The authors describe the examination procedures and the anatomy and physiology of breasts.
In this chapter, the authors explain how to conduct an examination of female genitalia. The chapter also describes the form and function of female genitalia.
The authors explain the biology of the penis, testicles, epididymides, scrotum, prostate gland, and seminal vesicles. Additionally, the chapter explains how to perform an exam of these areas.
This chapter focuses on performing an exam of the anus, rectum, and prostate. The authors also explain the anatomy and physiology of the anus, rectum, and prostate.
Dains, J. E., Baumann, L. C., & Scheibel, P. (2019). Advanced health assessment and clinical diagnosis in primary care (6th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby.
Credit Line: Advanced Health Assessment and Clinical Diagnosis in Primary Care, 6th Edition by Dains, J.E., Baumann, L. C., & Scheibel, P. Copyright 2019 by Mosby. Reprinted by permission of Mosby via the Copyright Clearance Center.
Chapter 5, “Amenorrhea”
Amenorrhea, or the absence of menstruation, is the focus of this chapter. The authors include key questions to ask patients when taking histories and explain what to look for in the physical exam.
Chapter 6, “Breast Lumps and Nipple Discharge”
This chapter focuses on the important topic of breast lumps and nipple discharge. Because breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women, it is important to get an accurate diagnosis. Information in the chapter includes key questions to ask and what to look for in the physical exam.
Chapter 7, “Breast Pain”
Determining the cause of breast pain can be difficult. This chapter examines how to determine the likely cause of the pain through diagnostic tests, physical examination, and careful analysis of a patient’s health history.
Chapter 27, “Penile Discharge”
The focus of this chapter is on how to diagnose the causes of penile discharge. The authors include specific questions to ask when gathering a patient’s history to narrow down the likely diagnosis. They also give advice on performing a focused physical exam.
Chapter 36, “Vaginal Bleeding”
In this chapter, the causes of vaginal bleeding are explored. The authors focus on symptoms outside the regular menstrual cycle. The authors discuss key questions to ask the patient as well as specific physical examination procedures and laboratory studies that may be useful in reaching a diagnosis.
Chapter 37, “Vaginal Discharge and Itching”
This chapter examines the process of identifying causes of vaginal discharge and itching. The authors include questions on the characteristics of the discharge, the possibility of the issues being the result of a sexually transmitted infection, and how often the discharge occurs. A chart highlights potential diagnoses based on patient history, physical findings, and diagnostic studies.
Sullivan, D. D. (2019). Guide to clinical documentation (3rd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: F. A. Davis.
Cucci, E., Santoro, A., DiGesu, C., DiCerce, R., & Sallustio, G. (2015). Sclerosing adenosis of the breast: Report of two cases and review of the literature. Polish Journal of Radiology, 80, 122–127. doi:10.12659/PJR.892706. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4356184/
Sabbagh , C., Mauvis, F., Vecten, A., Ainseba, N., Cosse, C., Diouf, M., & Regimbeau, J. M. (2014). What is the best position for analyzing the lower and middle rectum and sphincter function in a digital rectal examination? A randomized, controlled study in men. Digestive and Liver Disease, 46(12), 1082–1085. doi:10.1016/j.dld.2014.08.045
This article describes the benefits of new technology and guidelines for pelvic exams. The authors also detail which guidelines and technology may become obsolete.
This section of the CDC website provides a range of information on sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The website includes reports on STDs, related projects and initiatives, treatment information, and program tools.
• CC: “I have bumps on my bottom that I want to have checked out.”
• HPI: AB, a 21-year-old WF college student reports to your clinic with external bumps on her genital area. She states the bumps are painless and feel rough. She states she is sexually active and has had more than one partner during the past year. Her initial sexual contact occurred at age 18. She reports no abnormal vaginal discharge. She is unsure how long the bumps have been there but noticed them about a week ago. Her last Pap smear exam was 3 years ago, and no dysplasia was found; the exam results were normal. She reports one sexually transmitted infection (chlamydia) about 2 years ago. She completed the treatment for chlamydia as prescribed.
• PMH: Asthma
• Medications: Symbicort 160/4.5mcg
• Allergies: NKDA
• FH: No hx of breast or cervical cancer, Father hx HTN, Mother hx HTN, GERD
• Social: Denies tobacco use; occasional etoh, married, 3 children (1 girl, 2 boys)
• VS: Temp 98.6; BP 120/86; RR 16; P 92; HT 5’10”; WT 169lbs
• Heart: RRR, no murmurs
• Lungs: CTA, chest wall symmetrical
• Genital: Normal female hair pattern distribution; no masses or swelling. Urethral meatus intact without erythema or discharge. Perineum intact. Vaginal mucosa pink and moist with rugae present, pos for firm, round, small, painless ulcer noted on external labia
• Abd: soft, normoactive bowel sounds, neg rebound, neg murphy’s, negMcBurney
Diagnostics: HSV specimen obtained
PLAN: This section is not required for the assignments in this course (NURS 6512) but will be required for future courses.
Using evidence-based resources from your search, answer the following questions and support your answers using current evidence from the literature.
· Analyze the subjective portion of the note. List additional information that should be included in the documentation.
· Analyze the objective portion of the note. List additional information that should be included in the documentation.
· Is the assessment supported by the subjective and objective information? Why or why not?
· Would diagnostics be appropriate for this case, and how would the results be used to make a diagnosis?
· Would you reject/accept the current diagnosis? Why or why not? Identify three possible conditions that may be considered as a differential diagnosis for this patient. Explain your reasoning using at least three different references from current evidence-based literature.
Please do not write the paper in soap note format. PLEASE ANSWER ONLY THE QUESTIONS. DO NOT REWRITE THE CASE STUDY. Title page and Reference page required ( APA format ).
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