One example of that down here:
Chapter 5, the book explains membrane structure and goes into detail about the three main types including transmembrane proteins, lipid-anchored proteins, and peripheral membrane proteins. The part of chapter 5 explains how researchers are working to identify new membrane proteins and their functions because these proteins are important biologically and medically. The second part of chapter 5 talks about the fluidity of membranes. This is essential for normal cell function, growth, and division. Lipids and many proteins can move rotationally and laterally, but the flip flop of lipids from one leaflet to the opposite does not occur right away. The third section of chapter 5 talks about the synthesis of membrane components in eukaryotic cells. In these cells, most membrane phospholipids are synthesized at the cytosolic leaflet of the smooth ER membrane. The next part of chapter 5 talks about the overview of membrane transport. Biological membranes exhibit selective permeability. Where simple diffusion occurs when solute moves across the membrane from a region of high concentration to lower concentration. Then, chapter 5 talks about transport proteins. There are different classes of proteins including channels and transporters. Channels provide open passageways for facilitated diffusion. Transporters tend to function at a slower rate and bind their solutes in a hydrophilic pocket. The final part of chapter 5 talks about exocytosis and endocytosis. Exocytosis is the process in which materials inside the cell are packaged into vesicles and excreted into extracellular. Endocytosis occurs when the plasma membrane folds inward to form a vesicle that brings substances into the cell.
Chapter 6, explains the energy and chemical reactions. Chemical reactions are determined by their direction and rate. Energy is the ability to promote change or do work, which exists in many forms. The next part of chapter 6 talks about enzymes and ribosomes. Enzymes are proteins that speed up the rate of a chemical reaction by lowering the activation energy. Ribosomes are RNA that subunit within RNase P is a ribozyme and RNA molecules that catalyze a chemical reaction. Chapter 6, also talks about the overview of metabolism. Metabolism is the sum of the chemical reactions in a living organism. Next, chapter 5 talks about recycling organic molecules. This saves a great deal of energy for living organisms.
Chapter 7, explains the overview of cellular respiration. The explains the breakdown of organic molecules and the export of waste products. Part 2 of chapter 7 explains glycolysis. Which occurs in the cytosol, glucose is split into two molecules of pyruvate. Chapter 7, talks about the breakdown of pyruvate, the citric acid cycle, the overview of oxidative phosphorylation, and a closer look at ATP synthase. Chapter 7, also talks about the connections among carbohydrates, proteins, and fat metabolism. Proteins and fats enter into glycolysis or the citric acid cycle at different points. The last part of this chapter talks about anaerobic respiration and fermentation. Anaerobic respiration occurs in the absence of oxygen. Fermentation is organic molecules that are broken down without any net oxidation.
Chapter 8, talks about the overview of photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is the process by which plants, algae, and photosynthetic bacteria capture light energy that is used to synthesize carbohydrates. It also talks about the reactions that harness light energy. Light is a form of electromagnetic radiation that travels in waves and is composed of photons with discrete amounts of energy. Chapter 8 explains how molecular features of photosystems. The next part of chapter 8 explains the synthesizing of carbohydrates via the Calvin cycle. The Calvin cycle is composed of three phases: carbon fixation, reduction, and carbohydrate production. The final part of chapter 8 is the variations of photosynthesis.
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