Long bio paper | Biology homework help

 GIVEN GENE IS eyeless (ey) 


Talking points for the ‘body’ of the paper. 

The Introduction section of the review started with the heading: Introduction. The main part of the paper, or “body” is a series of sections that explores gene function in more detail. I would like your paper body to have 3 sections. You can have more than 3. Each of these also with a heading. Here is the first section: 

Functions of X during Drosophila development. (or something like that). Remember you were admonished to leave out some things about gene function in the Introduction. Here is where they get put in.

1a. Describe details of X expression and function. Your gene is likely expressed in more than one place and time, and so it is involved in more than one aspect of development. You will need at least one Figure for this. So likely a Figure 2 will be cited here, and it will be of pictures that you have lifted from the literature here and there. Remember how to cite figures in your paper. Don’t include these figures though. Just cite them. Remember figures go into a later section in the manuscript. Along the way, address… 

1b. What is controlling your genes’ expression. Your gene is controlled by other genes. Please describe a bit of this. 

2. Gene function(s). Over some paragraphs, describe the various functions of your gene in Drosophila, and how we know about those functions. Here you would explore structural features of the protein product, and how that tells us certain aspects of function. Phenotypes from mutations of the gene needs to be brought up here. This reinforces views of the genes’ function. Can by amorphic, hypomorphic, or you can describe both. Sometimes you will encounter descriptions of temperature-sensitive mutations. These are especially interesting. Cite one or more figures that you will include later. You should have a figure supporting these findings about gene function – about protein structural features and about mutant phenotypes. This figure can be either part of Figure 2 (a figure with multiple pictures or “panels”) or it can be a new figure – Figure 3. Your choice. 

3. Transgenic studies (optional). [NOTE: If this is done, and if it gets lengthy, I would make this a separate section. You would then have 2 of the 3 required sections in your body.] For many genes, up-front knowledge about the gene function comes from manipulating expression of the gene in transgenic fruit flies. This enters into some pretty intricate terminology about the genetic constructs that are made and what they do. If you embark on this, as ever I remind you that I can help explain the terminology. 

4. Here are some more pointers about preparing the ground for figures. In these paragraphs you will be citing various figures that give visual support to telling your reader about your gene. To be clear, you will need to A. take screen shots of figures from the literature. Be sure to keep track of your sources, though! You will need that for citations of those sources.  B. You can certainly have multiple pictures (panels) in one figure, and these panels can be from different sources. C. The text in the body pertaining to the figure should describe some details about the figure (as in don’t leave the reader wondering what the heck the figure is or why it’s there). But you don’t need to provide exhaustive, exacting detail. The figures will have captions (to be written later), and the captions provide the necessary high detail. D. You can draw your own figure! That’s right! I mean an original figure, not a tracing from the literature. This can be done by hand, for example, and then photographed and made ready to insert. If you find the photo quality is poor, then feel free to email it to me. I have very sophisticated software and lots  

of experience in processing pictures. 

Later sections of the body: Following that earlier section about gene function, I would like you to build two more sections (more if you want). Each with its own sub-title. Here is a menu you might choose from. 

1. The significance of X in other animals. (Again, you can certainly choose wording). 

2. Possible roles of X during evolution of animal body plans. Or you can describe some comparative studies. Is a gene controlling segmentation in Drosophila used as such in other arthropods? In vertebrates? 

3. The specific roles of X during human development. Normal development. 

4. The roles of X in human disorders. Birth defects. Cancer. Whatever comes up.

Remember: In these sections you will want more figures, separate from figures you’ve done so far. There will later be captions for these figures. 



I need this to be TRIPLE SPACED. 

Append REFERENCES to the end of the Discussion. For now these can just be url addresses – but for real papers. Those should include actual papers. Not just citations of FlyBase, or The Interactive Fly or whatever. 

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