Networks of networks and end to end networking responses

Provide (2) 150 words substantive response with a minimum of 1 APA references for RESPONSES 1 AND 2 below. Response provided should further discuss the subject or provide more insight. To further understand the response, below is the discussion post that’s discusses the responses. 100% original work and not plagiarized. Must meet deadline.

RESPONSE 1:

ARP, or Address Resolution Protocol, is responsible for converting the protocol stack of a host’s IP address into the correct MAC address, when sending information from one host to another on the same LAN. When a host computer requests a MAC address to send out a packet to another host, that request is sent and checked in the ARP Cache. The ARP Cache houses all IP associated addresses and their corresponding MAC address on that LAN. Should a host request a MAC address that is not within the ARP Cache, the ARP will then send out requests to all the devices on the network and wait for a response from the requesting machine (Smith, 2016).

Security issues involved with ARP are known as ARP Spoofing, or Poisoning. ARP spoofing is a “Man-In-The-Middle” attack that involves an attacker gaining access to a network and getting the IP addresses of at least two different devices, a workstation, and a router/gateway. Through the use to spoofing software, they are able to send out forged ARP responses fooling the user workstation they are the gateway and fooling the gateway that they are the user. Once established, all information sent from the user’s workstation will then me routed through the attacker’s computer before being sent out to the gateway (ARP Spoofing, 2021).

Global IP address, or public IP, is an address or unique identifier to a user’s device used over the internet. When individuals sign up through their local internet service provider, they will then issue them a public IP. Private IP addresses are specific IP identifiers within a Local Network connected through routing device. In this case, if an ISP gave provided a modem, the public IP address maybe allocated to the modem. The modem then connected to a router, will provide each connected device a private IP.

When a user wants to send something from their local network through the internet, NAT converts the private IP address into the ISP’s global address before sending it out through the internet. NAT is especially important because its never a good idea to release one’s private address, and if every device were given their own IP4 address, we would not have anymore. NAT provides multiple devices connected to a single router, one specific global address and provides private address to each connected device.

-NOAH

References

ARP Spoofing. (2021). Retrieved from imperva: https://www.imperva.com/learn/application-security/arp-spoofing/

Smith, R. E. (2016). Chapter 11: Networks of Networks. In Elementary Information Security, 2nd Ed. (p. 495). Burlington: Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC.

RESPONSE 2:

Explain the role of ARP and how it works. How might this be a security issue? First, ARP stands for Address Resolution Protocol, and it is basically a process that captures the MAC address and corresponding IP address of an end point on a network, then saves those details into a table so that they can be recalled upon as required. That is to say if one end point needs to send something to another end point within the network, ARP will translate the destination IP address into the destination MAC address and vice versa (Smith, 2015). One of the more common security issues that I found on ARP was that it was easily spoofed, entries were created in the ARP table to redirect traffic intended for elsewhere by modifying or creating new entries in the ARP table, also called the ARP Cache.  

What is the difference between a global IP address and a private IP address? Describe how a gateway converts a private IP address into a global IP address using NAT.  How this important to us in today’s information technology environment? So, private IP addresses are not transmitted over the internet, they are used only internally for the purpose of routing throughout a local area network. The global IP address, generally provided by the Internet Service Provider, is what allows a host access to the internet. This is done through the gateway which translates the host’s private IP address to a global IP address so that it may communicate over the internet. As all global addresses need to be unique, and obviously there are not an infinite amount of numbers, using the gateway allows for the LAN as a whole to use the one global address to communicate online, while using multiple private addresses to communicate within the network (Smith, 2015).

Well, that is about it for me tonight, have a great week class.

-ReBecca.

Reference

Smith, R. E. (2015). Elementary Information Security. [VitalSource Bookshelf]. Retrieved on March 2, 2021, from https://online.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781284093070/

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